Geography and Rural Development
GEOG 151 INTRODUCTION TO THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS (2,1,2)
The objective of course is to introduce students to the study of the physical environmental systems with reference to influencing agents and processes. Topics include components of physical environmental systems, introductory development of geomorphic thought, rock types, structure of the atmosphere, climatic elements and climatic controls, soil forming processes, major soil groups of Ghana and the ecosystem.
GEOG 152 INTRODUCTION TO MAPWORK (2,1,2)
This is to introduce students to the nature and utility of maps as tools for geographical investigation. Course components include definition and types of maps, functions of maps, characteristics of maps, scales, measurements of distances and areas, enlargement and reduction. Others include location and direction, representation of relief and drainage on topographical maps, identification and interpretation of physical and cultural features.
GEOG 153 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGRAPHY I (2,1,2)
The course seeks to expose students to the dominant theories in Human Geography. It introduces students to the dynamic interrelationships between man and his environment. Components include definition, scope and relevance of human geography, the concepts of environmental determinism, possibilism and probabilism, history of population growth and world population distribution, concept of negative areas, man as an agent of spatial (environmental) change.
GEOG 154 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGRAPHY II (2,1,2)
This course introduces students to some of the human activities in space and how these activities satisfy the needs of humankind. Specific issues of concern are urbanization, culture and perception of natural resources and resource extracting techniques, concept of the shrinking world and globalization, improvement in international relations, communications and transport, world bodies like UN, Africa Union, UNESCO, etc. and how they contribute to globalization, concepts of population density, optimum population, and overpopulation and under population.
GEOG 155 DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHIC THOUGHT I (2,1,2)
The specific objectives of the course are to establish the need to study the history and development of geographic thought and identify the nature and origins of geography’s chief themes. Topics include the need for the study of the history of geographic thought, geography in antiquity: role of Homer, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Strabo, etc.; Geography in the middle Ages and Renaissance, Arab Geography, and influence of Christianity.
GEOG 156 DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHIC THOUGHT II (2,1,2)
This course traces the connection between geography and allied disciplines and tries to foster understanding of the deep intellectual roots of contemporary geography and identify the generally agreed features of sound research in geography. Topics include the contributions of Emmanuel Kant, the Modern (Classical) Era: Critique of the contributions of the classical period of the development of geographic thought; contributions of the Ritter and Humboldt, Vidal de la Blache, Friedrich Ratzel, Alfred Hettner, Ellen Churchill Semple and 20th century determinists and Carl Urtwin Sauer
CSM 183 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS I (2,1,2)
What is Computer? Classification of Computers. Hardware – Memory, Central Processing Unit, Input/Output Devices. Software– System, Applications, Utility, Translators, Programming languages and others. Disk operating system (DOS) and Windows as Operating Systems. Word Processing Software: Microsoft Word.
CSM 184 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS II (2,1,2)
Spreadsheet Software: Microsoft EXCEL; Relational Database Software: Microsoft ACCESS.
MATH 153: STATISTICAL METHODS I (2, 1, 2)
Introduction: Nature and Uses of Statistics; Some Basic Concepts of Statistics.
Data Collection: Types of Sources of Data, Data Collection Methods and Questionnaire Design. Descriptive Analysis of Data: Organisation and Presentation of Data; Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion, Quartiles, Percentiles, Skewness and Kurtosis. Elementary Probability Theory: Random Experiments, Definitions of Terms and Measure of Probability. Some Basic Laws of Probability involving Compound Events. Computation of Probabilities involving Simple Events, Application of Counting Techniques and to Decision Problems. Random Variables and Probability Distributions: Concepts of Random Variables; Definition and Properties of Probability Distribution, Expectation, Median and Variance of Random Variables; Application to Decision Problems.
MATH 154: STATISTICAL METHODS II (2, 1, 2)
Some Special Probability Distributions: Binomial, Poisson, Geometric Multinomial, Hypergeometric, Normal and Exponential distributions. Inferential Analysis of Data: Sampling Methods; Sampling Distributions of the Means and Proportions, Standard Errors; The Use and Reading of Normal (Z), t -, F and Chi-Square (X2 ) Distributions, Tables in Inferential Analysis. Point and Interval Estimation of Parameters; Means and Proportions. Hypothesis Testing – Significance of Tests for Means and Proportions using Z-, t-, and F- Distributions; One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Analysis of Categorical Data: Chi-Square Tests for Goodness-of-Fit and Independence. Regression Analysis: Basic Concepts of Regression and Correlation Analysis; Scatter Diagram, Correlation Coefficient and its Interpretation; Simple Linear Regression Model, Estimation of Regression Parameters and Coefficient of Determination. Use of Statistical Software for Statistical Analysis: Excel, SPSS, MINITAB, SAS, GENSTAT, etc.
ENGL 157 COMMUNICATION SKILLS (2,1,2)
The course takes all first year students through a review of English grammar, and is a required course for all first year students of KNUST. Students will be assisted to review some of the common problem areas of their writing, such as verb/tense system, concord, sentence construction and paragraph organization. There shall also be a study of basic grammatical structures that shall involve teaching students to write formally correct sentences, avoiding sentence errors, and using punctuation effectively.
ENGL 158 COMMUNICATION SKILLS II (2,1,2)
This course is designed to continue the process of enhancing communication skills of students to become better users of the English language. The first part of the course will focus on writing skills – paragraphs, and then essays. Students shall also study the preparation of technical documents such as memos, reports, letters and proposals.
GEOG 251 INTRODUCTION TO GEOMORPHOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY (2,1,3)
This course is designed to deepen students understanding of the earth’s structure, the formation and appearance of the main relief features and the geology of the earth. Specific issues will include the aim, position, current trends and methods of research in Geomorphology and development of geomorphic thought of William Morris Davis and others. Issues of concern include the Davisian Cycle of Erosion, mineralogy (rock forming minerals), elements of Crystallography, elements of petrology etc.
GEOG 252 INTRODUCTION TO CLIMATOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY (2,1,3)
To assist students to acquire a clear understanding of selected processes in the atmosphere of the world’s major climates and the interaction between them and various land forms. Specific topics include climatic elements and control factors affecting temperature, atmospheric pressure and precipitation processes; formation of rainfall and raindrop; tropical meteorology and the study of synoptic charts; processes of soil formation; the soil profiles; Soils of Ghana; classification of plant communities; energy flow in the ecosystem; the hydrological, nitrogen and carbon cycles and the role of climate in the biotic complex/ecosystem.
GEOG 253 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF GEOGRAPHY I (2,1,3)
The course is intended to predispose students to the subject matter and key concepts of geography. Topics include the methodology of geography; the scientific status of geography; dualism and holism in geography; the region and regionalism; positivism, functionalism and humanistic approaches to geography and the birth of applied geography.
GEOG 254 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF GEOGRAPHY II (2,1,3)
The focus is on models, methods and techniques used in the explanation of geographical issues and problems. Topics include the role of laws, theories and models in geography; application of the scientific method; the quantitative revolution in geography; systems analysis in geography; the central place theory; Von Thunen Model of land use; concept of the Growth Pole; distance decay; gravity model; Spatial Diffusion; geography in a globalizing world.
GEOG 255 PRINCIPLES OF CARTOGRAPHY (2,1,3)
The course aims at equipping students with the basic principles and techniques of map-making, and also to help them apply such principles in analysis of spatial data. It is to train students to acquire the skill to plan the representation of spatial phenomena on a map. Topics to be treated include concept and scope of cartography, historical development of cartography, concept of map, basic properties of a map: (the scale, distance, direction, location and the coordinate systems, measurement (enlargement and reduction of scale), the map as a communication system, map projections and the techniques of mapping linear, area, and volumetric data.
GEOG 256 MAP INTERPRETATION AND FUNDAMENTALS OF SURVEYING (2,1,3)
This is to equip students with the theoretical and practical knowledge in the analysis of the topographical map, and the fundamentals of the basic survey methods. This knowledge is to enable students to use the map as a basic tool for analyzing spatial information for the purpose of planning. Specific topics include cartographical methods of representing relief, mathematical computations in relief analysis, drawing relief profiles and long profiles of rivers, delineation of physical features on topographical maps, interpretation of human features on topographical maps, description of land use patterns on topographical maps and fundamentals of chain survey, compass traversing, aerial photo interpretation, leveling and remote sensing.
ENGL 263 LITERATURE IN ENGLISH I (POETRY AND DRAMA) (1,1,1)
This is a basic course in Literature, introducing all university students to opportunities to enjoy and to love the world of books in English and in our various Ghanaian languages. Special consideration will be given to language as the primary vehicle of literature. Old classics as well as significant contemporary works by living authors will be studied. The course will also draw on the vast stock of Africa’s oral literary heritage and performance traditions. Given the wide range of disciplinary backgrounds and interests of the students who are expected to take this, the selection of texts will take into consideration the interrelations of literature and other disciplines. The course will focus on poetry and drama.
ENGL 264 LITERATURE IN ENGLISH II (FICTION) (1,1,1)
This course has as its main components the study of folktales, short stories and the novel. African and westerns texts representative of this genre shall be used to illustrate the language, themes, and the literary devices employed for these
GEOG 351 RESEARCH METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY (3,1,3)
It focuses on the scientific approach to geographical research. By the end of the course, students would have been introduced to the processes of research, reviewing literature, formulating a research problem, identifying key variables – predictive and outcomes, constructing hypothesis, selecting a study design, identifying data collection techniques, sampling procedures, data analysis frameworks and interpretation of research results.
GEOG 352: RESEARCH METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY II
This course is a continuation of the First Semester’s course GEOG 351. It focuses on the scientific approach to geographical research. By the end of the course, students would have been ready for the GEOG 490 project work to the practical processes of reviewing literature, developing of a research proposal, identifying key variables– predictive and outcomes, setting and testing of hypotheses, appropriate study design, identifying the appropriate data collection techniques, sampling procedures, data analysis frameworks and interpretation of research results. Students would also be introduced to statistical tools and quantitative handling of data in geographical analysis including frequency distribution, testing hypotheses, measuring associations, multivariate analysis of variance, etc.
GEOG 353 PRINCIPLES OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT I
This course aims to introduce students to the various concepts and issues of rural development. It pays particular attention to student’s understanding of the rural environment and its implications for development. Issues of concern include the concept of rural resource development and the need for regional policy, the physical basis of rural development: hydrology, and agro-climatology, evapotranspiration and water resources, soils and vegetation, rural population dynamics – sources of basic demographic data: population composition, components of population changes, settlement types and functions. It will also focus on the social structure and organisation of rural communities, Optimization of rural land use and sustainable development: Von Thunen Theory, Linear programming etc.
GEOG 354 APPLIED RURAL DEVELOPMENT II
This course focuses on the need for rural development. It will introduce students to rural-urban contrast/imbalance, migration, especially rural urban migration and its implication in rural development. Differences in socio-economic amenities in rural and urban areas and the systems approach to understanding rural problems and development. It looks at an overview of rural development efforts in Ghana, the role of government, quasi-government, non-governmental institutions in rural development, strategies and various approaches and constraints to rural development in Ghana, integrated rural development and the role of culture in rural development. The role of science and technology and the rural environment will also be examined.
GEOG 355 REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA (3,1,3)
It focuses on the physical geography of Africa; the people of Africa, ethnicity, and independence and their spatial implications. Regional economic growth and systems of transformation, migration, and regional study of one of the following regions of Africa are given detailed consideration: North Africa, Central Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. Issues that would be treated include population, agriculture, tourism and environment.
GEOG 356 REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF WEST AFRICA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GHANA (3,1,3)
This course exposes students to the detailed Regional Geography of West Africa. Issues to be discussed are the physical environment and its interrelationships with the human/social environment. These would be treated, mindful of the West African environment and its general challenges to the primary economic activities in the region, industrialization, energy resources, transportation, population distribution, migration and urbanization, tourism in relation to development.
GEOG 357 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY I (3,1,3)
The main objective of this course is to introduce students to an in-depth study of the earth structure and forms and their influencing agents and processes. In addition students would be introduced to the earth’s water supply systems – the sources of water, processes of water flow, its chemical reactions with the rest of the earth and its reaction to life on the earth. At the end of the course, students must be able to plan an effective physical management of land and water resources. Topics to be treated include: systems analysis in geomorphology, evaluation of slopes, channel process, evaluation of valleys and drainage forms and patterns and coastal processes.
GEOG 358 GEOMORPHOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY II (3,1,3)
This course is a sequel to Geomorphology and Hydrology I. Topics to be treated include glacial erosion and glaciated features, definitions of hydrology, and historical development of hydrology, the hydrological system and cycle, precipitation and water resource development, infiltration and soil water, runoff, basin forms and development, coastal processes; coastal landforms and raised beaches.
GEOG 359 CLIMATOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY I (3,1,3)
The course is structured to equip students with the knowledge and functioning of various climatic phenomena and their effects on man and his activities. In addition, the course will introduce them to the characteristics and management of various biological resources with special reference to those in West Africa. Topics to be treated include: air masses, fronts and associated weather conditions; tropical disturbances; easterly waves, tropical depressions, hurricane, thunderstorms, monsoon depressions; weather associated with synoptic systems; anticyclones, ridges, depressions, trough, cols etc. climatic classification such as the generic, rational as in Thornthwaite’s and Koppen’s will be treated.
GEOG 360 CLIMATOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY II (3,1,3)
The course will introduce students to: atmospheric humidity and its measurements; ozone depletion and processes of desertification. Applied climatology to the areas of agriculture, industry, engineering and recreation will also be examined. Climate of West Africa in relation to insects and insect-borne disease, management of soils, vegetation and other biological resources will be considered.
GEOG 361 REMOTE SENSING I (3,1,3)
Students would be introduced to the practical aspects of remote sensing and how to use it to capture and analyze spatial data. Some of the topics include; data acquisition and interpretation, image interpretation and analysis, satellites/platforms and sensors, multistage remote sensing and applications.
GEOG 362 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) (3,1,3)
Students would be introduced to the use of the GPS in spatial data collection. Components of the GIS include: map and spatial information, computer assisted mapping and map analysis, components of GIS (software, hardware and organisation aspects), types of analysis with GIS, types of work (map data representation), identifying resources for development with GIS and the constraints to the use of GIS in Ghana.
GEOG 363 RURAL RESOURCE ANALYSIS I (3,1,3)
This course introduces students to the growing concern on natural resources, development and the environment within the broad context of the ecology and their effects on the rural economy. The components of the course include the concept and classification of resources, population resource relationships, resource processes, techniques of natural resource surveys and the environment. An overview of natural resource sectors: mineral and energy resources, food and agriculture resources will be considered.
GEOG 364 RURAL RESOURCE ANALYSIS II (3,1,3)
As a follow up of the basic concepts introduced in semester one, this course aims at introducing students to an overview of resources and development in Ghana. Topics to be addressed are: resource concerns/patterns and development; environment and the issue of sustainable development; resources and environmental policy/strategy such as, land tenure reforms, agrarian reforms and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedures in Ghana.
GEOG 365 GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT I (3,1,3)
The basic objective of this course is to address development issues within gender perspectives in development strategies. In addressing this objective, students will learn key concepts, definitions, analysis and approaches in Gender and Development. Students shall be introduced to gender and development theories. Other issues of interest will be gender and reproductive health – birth control, contraceptives and education, gender differentials, women status and other indicators.
GEOG 366 GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT II (3,1,3)
Through teaching and research, students will be exposed to the critical factors of gender in the development process for a meaningful understanding of the nature of development. The topics to be addressed are: gender issues in migration and urbanization; labour/Employment in the various sectors, such as the agriculture, industries, division of labour and traditional society. Also, the population and gender relationships in education, adolescent reproductive health and HIV/AIDS would be treated. Issues such as transitions, new patterns and controversies in gender and development will be considered.
GEOG 367 DECENTRALISATION AND DEVELOPMENT I (3,1,3)
This course is to expose students to the concept of decentralization, its role and responsibilities in service delivery to the people at the district level. It seeks to equip students to understand the politics, development issues and challenges of decentralized administration. Topics to be addressed include the following: major forms of decentralization – deconcentration, delegation, privatization and devolution, administration and political decentralization dichotomy, decentralization and governance, power, poverty alleviation and development.
GEOG 368 DECENTRALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT II (3,1,3)
This course examines the practice of decentralization in Ghana. It is to expose students to understand the practice and trend of decentralization from the colonial period to the present. Issues such as the development activities of the District Assemblies including the structure, planning processes, financial decentralization, participation of the people and poverty alleviation strategies under the decentralized system of Ghana shall be treated. The role of Traditional Authorities, the decentralized Departments, and NGOs etc. would be examined.
GEOG 369: PROJECT MANAGEMENT I
To provide students with understanding in the role of projects in the development process and to help equip them with the necessary skills for project identification, preparation, projects analysis and the preparation of feasibility studies. Based on the above students shall be introduced to the following: the role of projects in the development process; project proposal; techniques of project identification; project preparation/preparing the project document; project analysis (technical analysis); project analysis (economic analysis) and preparing a feasibility study.
GEOG 370: PROJECT MANAGEMENT II
The course is to acquaint students with the principles and techniques for project implementation, monitoring and ex evaluation. It will therefore focus on: project analysis (financial analysis); project analysis (social analysis); project analysis (institutional analysis); project analysis environmental analysis); project implementation and management; project monitoring; project ex post evaluation and designing and evaluation system.
GEOG 451 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT I (3,1,3)
This is to introduce students to various development theories, analytical tools and planning models within the context of the region. The concept of development and theories of development and under-development would be considered alongside generalized factors of development and theories of regional development. Issues such as the structure of dependence, Regional domination theory, sub-national development planning, Growth Pole and Core-periphery models and their applications in development planning in developing countries will be studied.
GEOG 452 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT II (3,1,3)
The course aims at guiding students to explore in-depth regional development issues. It will focus on the following: the concept of the region, planning theory, regional planning models and development plans. Other topics to be considered include; institutional and organizational structures for regional development, methods of regional analysis including data for regional analysis, Gravity model and other spatial interaction models and techniques such as linear programming, location quotient, factor analysis, nearest neighborhood analysis etc. A field trip to some of the Regions in Ghana will be organized to study the problems of regional development as case studies.
GEOG 453 SPATIAL ORGANISATION OF HUMAN SOCIETIES I (3,1,3)
The focus of this course is on spatial organization, particularly how spatial processes and structures are coordinated to bring about optimum use of space to achieve the highest possible interaction at the least cost. Approaches to the study of spatial organization, spatial interaction, and evolution of spatio-cultural patterns and spatial organization of modern agriculture would be some of the themes to be covered. Students will be introduced to the delimitation of cultural groups/areas on the basis of political organization, religion, social studies, standard of living and technology, perception in spatial organization and spatial diffusion of innovation.
GEOG 454 SPATIAL ORGANISATION OF HUMAN SOCIETIES II (3,1,3)
The course will focus on the concept of urbanization, evolution of settlements and their role in African development, organization of rural space and introduction to cultural geography, evolution of spatio-cultural patterns in Africa, the growth pole theory and the central place theory. Also to be discussed are the inter-relationship among population, resources, environment and development. The course will further give students insight into cultural convergence and divergence – the influence of the developed world on Africa, patterns of spatial organization as they relate to development in the developed and developing world.
GEOG 455 POVERTY AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (3,1,3)
The main objective of this course is to introduce undergraduates to the basic concepts and understanding of poverty including absolute, relative, complex approaches, approaches to the measurement of poverty, Participatory Poverty Assessment and tools, the causes and effects of poverty and poverty reduction strategies. It will focus on the various dimensions of poverty and their effects on the rural populace. The Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy, Poverty reduction strategies under the District Assemblies and NGOs in Ghana will be assessed.
GEOG 456 RURAL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCES (3,1,3)
This course will focus on the general overview of the policies and experiences in rural development in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing parts of the world. The approach is comparative and draws on examples from countries from Africa, South East Asia, and Latin America. It seeks to broaden student’s knowledge in global perspectives on rural development and poverty alleviation. Technologies for rural development and management of rural resources for increased productivity in the respective countries would be covered.
GEOG 457 INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY (3,1,3)
The purpose of the course is to introduce students to theories of industrial location and how such theories apply to developing countries including Ghana. The Scope of Industrial Geography would include industrialization in the development process of countries (particularly LDCs), industrial location theories, the role of government in industrial activity and the export processing zone (EPZ) concept. Students will be introduced to the role of industrialization in the development process.
GEOG 458 INDUSTRIALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT (3,1,3)
This is a sequel to Geog 457. The course is designed to help students to understand the spatial aspects of industrial development and how it affects the trend of industrialization in developing countries particularly, Ghana. The economic forces and the geographical factors which determine industrial location pattern will be considered. Also to be explored are the determinants of industrial location patterns, state/government industrial location polices, regional distribution of industries in Ghana, the Role of Manufacturing; Investment Decisions and their culminating effects on development
GEOG 459 MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY (3,1,3)
Medical Geography is to expose the student to the spatial patterns of health and diseases, as well as the concepts, theories and principles underlying them. It is to equip the student with the tools for describing, explaining and predicting the aetiology, occurrence, transmission and effects of disease and their spatial variations and patterns. Students will also be exposed to the basic approaches of analyzing health data.
GEOG 460 HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT (3,1,3)
This course is to examine the inter-relationships between health and development, using specific examples from both developing and developed countries. It is also to examine the causes and developmental impact of selected diseases such as HIV/AIDS and Malaria. The socio-cultural and economic factors of health that impinge on development are to be examined in their spatial perspectives. Students are also to be exposed to policy analysis in addressing the health and development problems in developing countries.
GEOG 461 POPULATION GEOGRAPHY (3,1,3)
The course aims at giving students a clear understanding of the concepts and techniques of collecting analyzing population data. Population characteristics such as age and sex composition, fertility, mortality and migration will be studied. Students will also be introduced to the concept of population projections and population growth. The spatial measures and techniques of population analysis will be reviewed.
GEOG 462 POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT (3,1,3)
As a follow up to the basic issues introduced in semester one, this course will assist students to gain in-depth knowledge about world population trends and their inter-relationships with social and economic change. In this regard, special considerations will be given to spatial characteristics. These will include population growth/distribution and resources; spatial patterns of population and their relevance for development. The link between population, environment and development will be explored. Population policies, advanced demographic analysis and techniques of population analysis as well as detailed population studies of special problems and special regions (Ghana, Africa etc.) will also constitute essential themes.
GEOG 463 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT I (3,1,3)
The course seeks to give students a general overview of the environment, the concept of the environment from the earth scientists and the social scientist perspectives and the global environmental debate. Also to be elaborated on are the ecosystem management and worldviews on environmental ethics. Environmental risk management, environmental education, ecotourism, environmental policy and development and the issue of climate variability and change will also be explored.
GEOG 464 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT II (3,1,3)
This course will focus on the human impact on the natural environment, urban environmental problems, the principles and tools of environmental management such as the environmental impact assessment (EIA), environmental management system (EMS), and strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The course will further expose students to the institutional roles of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the environmental resources policies of Ghana and elsewhere in Africa as well as the formulation and implementation of environmental programmes.
GEOG 465 GEOGRAPHY OF TOURISM (3,1,3)
The main objective of this course is to introduce undergraduates to some of the basic principles, concepts and models associated with Leisure, Recreation and Tourism (LRT) studies. It is also aimed at examining the empirical status of some of these theories. Specific topics to be treated include the following: definition of tourism and who is a tourist. Tourism, its multidisciplinary nature, motivators and determinants of tourism, factors that promote and restrict tourism development, systems theory and development (i.e. strategic planning models), impacts of tourism – social, economic and physical impacts of tourism on societies and their ecological set ups.
GEOG 466 TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE THIRD WORLD (3,1,3)
The main objective of this course is to examine the various paradigms of tourism development in developing countries. It also examines efforts of developing countries towards tourism development and tourism impact studies and its assessment. The following topics shall be treated: Tourism development in the third world, the diffusionist paradigm and theory, the dependency theory in tourism development, the concept of tourism area cycle of evolution, tourism development in Ghana and regional distribution of tourism resources, tourism development planning in Ghana and tourism impact assessment.
GEOG 467 TRANSPORTATION GEOGRAPHY (3,1,3)
This course introduces undergraduates to transportation and the organization of human society. It also looks at theories and models of transportation development and transportation planning. Students shall also be introduced to network formulation and analyses, transport economics and technology and transport development. Specific topics include, definition of transportation geography and its role and practical importance in the geographical system, Historical development of the various modes of transport, Models and Theories in transportation geography, network analysis, principles of transportation planning and introduction to transport economics.
GEOG 468 TRANSPORTS AND DEVELOPMENT (3, 1, 3)
This course examines the inter-relationships between transportation networks and the concepts of development. Urban and rural transport systems would be examined and Ghana’s transport system such as road, rail, air and water and their roles of transporting goods and services will be studied. It will also focus on the contributions of improved transportation and the links between transport and development, tourism, urbanization, regional integration, international trade, transport and information communication technologies (ICTs).
GEOG 469 URBAN GEOGRAPHY I (3,1,3)
The course exposes students to the origins, scope and development of Urban Geography and the distribution and structure of towns and cities. The emergence, scope and development of towns and cities, the origin of towns and cities in eras of the Greek, Roman and Medieval Africa are discussed. The issues of urbanization in Western Europe, North America and Africa as well as the location and spacing of towns will be given due consideration. The application of the central place theory and rank–size rule in urban studies will be used to analyse the inter-relationships between urban structure, functions, and urban populations.
GEOG 470 URBAN GEOGRAPHY II (3,1,3)
This is a sequel to the GEOG 469 designed to give students more insight into the internal morphology of towns and cities. Occupation characteristics of towns and cities in terms of the urban economic functions will be discussed. Other equally important topics in the course will be the non-basic concept; the main sectors of the urban economy and urban land use plans. The course will further explore urban problems with respect to urban amenities (supply & demand); urban environmental pollution, the development of slums; traffic congestion in large towns; urban renewal; urban influence on the fringe and the hinterlands will as well be treated. There will be case studies of large towns, cities and urbanization in selected regions in Africa.
GEOG 471: APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY I (3,1,3)
The course is designed to equip students with the knowledge and functioning of various climatic phenomena and how the earth’s climate and its variability occur across space and time, their effects on man and his activities. It is also to introduce them to the characteristics and management of various biological resources with special reference to those in West Africa. There will be in-depth study of air masses, fronts and associated weather conditions; tropical disturbances; easterly waves, tropical depressions, hurricane, thunderstorms, monsoon depressions; weather associated with synoptic systems; anticyclones, ridges, depressions, trough, cols etc and climatic classification (rational and generic-Thornthwaite’s and Koppen’s). Practical exercises will include field data collection and modelling of results for analysing and projecting changes through time.
GEOG 472: APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY II (3,1,3)
The course will introduce students to the following: atmospheric humidity and its measurements; ozone depletion and desertification; applied climatology for agriculture, industry, engineering and recreation; climate and water resources management; climate & urban risk management, climate risk and decision making under uncertainties. Other topics will include, climate of West Africa as favourable conditions for breeding insects and insect-borne disease studies; soils, vegetation conservation and management. Critical assessment of future scenarios of climate and human links will also be investigated. The course will further expose students to the global, regional and national institutions in the forefront of climate science and related issues (e.g. IPCC, UNFCCC, COP; WWF, GEF, etc).
GEOG 473 APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY I (3,1,3)
The course discusses conceptual principles underlying the processes of geomorphic landforms and their resultant structure on the earth surface. Emphasis will be placed on the typical tropical areas as a morphogenetic region as well as the global zones of morphological processes and forms as modified by the respective climatic environment. The outline includes geomorphic theories underlying the weathering processes and products, deep weathering profiles, Duricrusts, denudational processes, inselbergs, hillslopes and pediments, stream channels, orogenetic processes and bioclimatic interruptions, quantitative and geomorphologic mapping, glaciology and sedimentologic study of surface particles. The examination and determination of soils and their characteristics in the field, (horizons, texture, colour, consistency, reaction with organic matter) will also be discussed.
GEOG 474: APPLIED GEOMORPHOLOGY II (3,1,3)
The course will treat areas such as a definition of applied geomorphology. The application of the various geomorphologic principles in solving spatio-temporal problems caused by geomorphic processes with the anthropogenic infractions will be discussed. The course would focus on the application of quantitative principles underlying geomorphic processes such as drainage basin morphometry, the calculation of stream frequency, elongation ratio, basin relief, ruggedness number, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, graded river, environment and development. Other topics to be examined are the dynamic effects of coastal processes and landforms on human settlements, Atterberg limits and the behaviour of clay minerals, particle shape and its application to coastal engineering with field studies would also be discussed. Also to be addressed are field studies of erosion and deposition, development issues in hot, integrated river basin management, irrigation agriculture in savanna and arid environments etc.
GEOG 475: PRINCIPLES OF HYDROLOGY (3,1,3)
Water constitutes the greatest element of the planet earth. Therefore accurate scientific knowledge of this resource is pertinent for humanity on the earth surface. This course is designed to expose students to the concepts and theories of hydrologic dynamics of the earth. The course content would detail the essentials of hydrology and hydrological measurements of intensity, frequency and duration of precipitation at a given point, estimation of evaporation and evapo-transporation from water surfaces and oils, infiltration: soil moisture, laws governing infiltration, groundwater; types of aquifer, inter-relationship between groundwater and surface water, surface runoff: elementary hydrograph, types of runoff and depth/area/duration relationships will be addressed.
GEOG 476: ENVIRONMENTAL HYDROLOGY (3,1,3)
The course is an application of the theories and concepts students were exposed to in the first semester course (GEOG 475). The focus of the course will be on the impact of hydrological processes on the environment. The course will highlight some phenomena and conservation measures necessary for the planning, design and operational phases of water management. Also to be considered are the anthropogenic dynamics on water resources: flood forecasting, routing and management, erosion and sediments yield and sedimentology, urban drainage, salt water intrusion and drought management. The techniques of assessing the physico-chemical parameters of water from the various sources will be examined. Wetland management and environmental ramifications of water resource projects will also be considered. Again, the application of appropriate models to water management would be explored with ample fieldwork (e.g. FAST; MODFLOW, CHILD etc).
GEOG 477: APPLIED REMOTE SENSING I
This course introduces students to the principles of remote sensing. Theories of Geospatial Technologies, including global positioning systems and remote sensing, total stations would be introduced. The course also introduces students to the theory and interpretation of remote sensing imagery, with emphasis on photographic, multi-spectral, thermal, and microwave remote sensing systems.
GEOG 478: APPLIED REMOTE SENSING II
This course is a sequel to Remote Sensing I and introduces students to the application of Remote Sensing techniques. These include image processing and interpretation; ground truthing and applications. The techniques for image processing would also be taught. The course will also illustrate geographic and environmental applications of remote sensing data
GEOG 479: APPLIED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS I
This course introduces students to the principles of Geographic Information Systems, the nature of spatial data and their representation. Students would be equipped with the practical skills of geographic information systems, including the categories of geographic data acquisition, data input, data models, and spatial analysis.
GEOG 480: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS II
This course is a sequel to the first semester course and introduces students to the application of Geographic Information Systems. The course emphasizes technical application of geographic information systems (GIS) in socio-economic and environmental studies. Students will gain experience with applications and utilities of Geographic Information Systems, and learn how to plan and implement a GIS project. Emphasis would also be placed on constraints to application of GIS in Africa, with special reference to Ghana.
GEOG 481: NGOs MANAGMENT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT I
The course is designed to develop the intellectual and analytical capabilities of students for opportunities in the non-governmental and voluntary sectors. The course will equip students with a sound understanding of the types of NGOs and the issues facing NGOs and create the platform for reflection on the impact of NGOs, within Geographical scopes of community development, improve knowledge in the organizational forms of NGOs and challenges they face. The course will also explore the concepts, definitions and functions of NGOs within global development practice. It will promote knowledge in theories explaining the relevance of NGOs in international and local level development. The organizational structures and systems, resource mobilization techniques and strategic management of resources for grassroots development shall be examined
GEOG 482: NGOs MANAGMENT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT II
This course shall be the sequel to GEOG 481; NGO Management and Community Development I. It will equip students with the critical approaches of NGOs to community development within the context of Ghana. It will review the functions, strategies and impacts of NGOs in rural-urban development dynamics in Ghana with special focus on the relevance of community engagement and participation in NGOs functional processes. The course will also make students to appreciate the various institutional and operation strategies as well as the challenges of the non-profit and the voluntary sectors within national development and spatial organization framework. The course will closely examine the managerial strategies for sustaining NGOs operations within local socio-cultural environment.
GEOG 483: GEOGRAPHY OF HAZARDS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT I
This course introduces students to the evolution and geo-spatial distribution and of hazards and disasters in societies. It focuses on understanding the relation between the risks to which societies are exposed to and the human practices that may increase, decrease, or relocate these risks. The principal objective of the course is to introduce students to spatial distribution and temporal variations of environmental hazards.
GEOG 484: GEOGRAPHY OF HAZARDS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT II
As a follow up to the basic issues introduced in semester one, students will be assisted to gain knowledge about vulnerability as a challenging policy problem and on the assessment of vulnerability as a guiding planning principle. This course focuses on vulnerability as a manifestation of the relationship between society and hazards, especially of how people and societies cope with and respond to environmental hazards within space and over time. A central objective is to facilitate critical review of disaster management policies in Africa, with special reference to Ghana, and to examine some solutions being proposed and implemented to reduce vulnerability to environmental hazards.
CS 451 INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION OF SOIL SCIENCE (1,2,2)
This course integrates soil science principles, particularly soil chemistry, fertility and microbiology and applies these principles to agronomic and environmental problems. Topics covered include: growth and yield laws; ions uptake models; soil fertility, its evaluation and problems in Ghana; electrical characteristics of soil/water interface; soil solution. Microbial population dynamics and activity in soils; introduction to contemporary research problems in soil microbiology; role of micro-organisms in nutrient cycling and their effects on plant growth.
CS 452 ENVIRONMENTAL SOIL SCIENCE (1,2,2)
Environmental soil science deals with soil systems and their environments from the perspective of soil development and classification, field water cycle and groundwater pollution. Major topics include: Pedogenic processes influencing soil genesis and characteristics; soils of Ghana, soil surveys, mapping and classification; land evaluation; field water cycle; redistribution of water in soil; evaporation from bare soil; soil-plant-water relations; water balance and energy balance in the field; irrigation and water use efficiency; groundwater drainage pollution.
GEOG 489 / 490 DISSERTATION (0,12, 6) (3 Credits per Semester).
Final Year students are expected to conduct research, under supervision, on a given topic in their areas of specialisation as part of the requirements in partial fulfilment for the award of the BA Degree in Geography and Rural Development. The topic, which needs to be approved by the student’s supervisor, must be such that the study is development-oriented.